Rekonstruksi konsep fakir dan miskin sebagai mustahik zakat

Dede Rodin

Abstract


Among as}naf are entitled to receive zakat is faqi>r and miski>n, but both groups are often interpreted
overlap.This article aims to reconstruct the concept of faqi>r and miski>n with perspective of the Qur’an.
This is because that, in addition to the Qur’an is believed by Muslims as the main source of law, also the
concept of faqi>r and miskin as well as ‘illat that causes both as mustahik zakat will make the distribution
of zakat in accordance with its objectives. The study of the verses of the Qur’an about the faqi>r and
miski>n, results the conclusions: First, faqi>r is who are deterred from livelihoold as work reason or udhur.
The work reason is due to religious activity or work shar’i as da’wah and jihad. While the udhur reason
caused by kauni destiny like a disability, palsied, and old. Thus, ‘illat for faqr groups derived from God’s
glory and the exam so that they get the respect, zakat and other compensation. The glory reason coming
from the work shar’iyyah, while the test reason comes from udhur kauniyyah. While the miski>n are literally
means sakana; silent and not moving, that miski>n terms describe the result of a weak state of a person
because he chose sakana lifestyle (silent, static, not developing skills in his life). As a result he became
poor and do not have anything whatsoever to fulfill their needs.

Keywords


Faqir; Miskin; Mustahiq; Illat

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v15i1.137-158

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