The early marriage of the Tolaki Konawe community in the perspective of critical Islamic law

Kamaruddin Kamaruddin


The Konawe people have a unique tradition of early marriage. Research from a critical Islamic perspective has yet to be widely studied in this tradition. This study investigated the initial legitimacy process as an ethnic tradition in early marriage. A legal ethnographic case study design was used in this study. Thirteen individuals participated in the study, including four community leaders, three indigenous peoples, two academics, and four parents of early marriage doers. In-depth interviews and observation were used to collect the data. Reduction, presentation, and interpretation are all used in data analysis methods. The study revealed three key findings: First, the chieftain decides on early marriage in the Tolakiness community. Second, decisions and agreements must be followed and upheld by everyone in the community. Thirdly, different legal systems—such as Islamic, Indonesian, or Western civil law—impact these judgments and agreements, which alters the relationship between law and freedom. This article argued that the Tolakian community needs to undergo cultural reconstruction to accommodate women's rights and freedoms and avoid coercive judgments from tribal chiefs.



critical Islamic law; cultural construction; early marriage; Tolakinesse traditional Figures

Full Text:



Abunawas (2022) ‘Personal Interviewe in Tolaki, 10 May’.

Alghafli, Z., Hatch, T. and Marks, L. (2014) ‘Religion and relationships in Muslim families: A qualitative examination of devout married Muslim couples’, Religions, 5(3), pp. 814–833. doi: 10.3390/rel5030814.

Asrizal and Armita, P. (2019) ‘Local Wisdom in Practice Traditional Wedding in Indonesia’, Jurnal Maw’izah, 2, pp. 40–48.

Barnett, M. A. (2008) ‘Mother and grandmother parenting in low-income three-generation rural households’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(5), pp. 1241–1257. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00563.x.

Creswell, J. W. (2012) Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. 4th edn. Boston: Pearson.

Cuddy, A. J. et al. (2015) ‘Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content’, Journal of personality and social psychology, 109(4), p. 622. doi:

Darwis (2022) ‘Interview in Wanggeduku, 24 May’.

Dewi, I. S. and Putra, S. (2020) ‘Persepsi Masyarakat Tentang Pernikahan Dini ditinjau dari Latar Belakang Budaya (Batak dan Jawa)’, BEST Journal (Biology Education, Sains and Technology), 3(1), pp. 112–119. doi: 10.30743/best.v3i1.2486.

Djawas, M. et al. (2022) ‘Creating Family Resilience in Indonesia: A Study of “Marriage Guidance” Program in Aceh and South Sumatera’, Al-Ihkam: Jurnal Hukum dan Pranata Sosial, 17(1), pp. 299–324. doi: 10.19105/AL-LHKAM.V17I1.6150.

Fadlyana, E. and Larasaty, S. (2016) ‘Pernikahan Usia Dini dan Permasalahannya’, Sari Pediatri, 11(2), p. 136. doi: 10.14238/sp11.2.2009.136-41.

Faidah, M. et al. (2018) ‘Islamic Wedding Attraction in Entrepreneur Vocational Perspective’, in International Conference on Indonesian Technical Vocational Education and Association (APTEKINDO 2018) Islamic. Surabaya: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), pp. 293–296. doi: 10.2991/aptekindo-18.2018.64.

George, I. N., Ukpong, D. E. and Imah, E. E. (2014) ‘Cultural Diversity of Marriage Sustainability in Nigeria: Strengths and Challenges’, Sociology and Anthropology, 2(1), pp. 7–14. doi: 10.13189/sa.2014.020102.

Hafidzi, A. et al. (2021) ‘A Review on Cultural Customs of Marriage Traditions Among Banjar Ethnic Women in Banjarmasin Indonesia’, Potret Pemikiran, 25(1), p. 112. doi: 10.30984/pp.v25i1.1477.

Haryanto, J. T. (2015) ‘Relasi Agama dan Budaya dalam Hubungan Intern Umat Islam’, Smart, 1(1), pp. 41–54. doi: 10.18784/smart.v1i1.228.

Ipandang, I. and Yuliyanti, A. Y. (2020) ‘Tolaki Tribe’s Marriage: The Struggle of Islamic Law and Customary Law’, Madania: Jurnal Kajian Keislaman, 24(2), p. 191. doi: 10.29300/madania.v24i2.3872.

Khaerunisa, F. E. (2021) ‘Adultery in the Perspective of Islamic Religious Law and Positive Law in the Indonesian Community’, HUNAFA: Jurnal Studia Islamika, 18(2), pp. 158–174.

Kistoro, H. C. A. and Sulaeman, F. (2019) ‘Pernikahan DIni di Kota Yogyakarta ditinjau dari Aspek Pendidikan Agama’, Al Qalam, 25(2).

Koodoh, E. E., Ahimsa Putra, H. S. and Setiadi, S. (2018) ‘The Involvement of Religious Leaders in Conflict Resolution within Tolaki People of Konawe District’, Al-Albab, 7(1), p. 75. doi: 10.24260/alalbab.v7i1.965.

Lalohao, S. and Kasukia, R. (2022) ‘Interview in Konawe, 05 June’.

Latipah, E., Kistoro, H. C. A. and Putranta, H. (2021) ‘How are the parents involvement, peers and agreeableness personality of lecturers related to self-regulated learning?’, European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), pp. 413–425. doi: 10.12973/EU-JER.10.1.413.

Maswikwa, B. et al. (2015) ‘Minimum marriage age laws and the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa’, International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 41(2), pp. 58–68. doi: 10.1363/4105815.

Mcclendon, D. and Kuo, J. C. (2018) ‘Opportunities to Meet : Occupational Education and Marriage Formation in Young Adulthood Author ( s ): David McClendon , Janet Chen-Lan Kuo and R . Kelly Raley Published by : Springer on behalf of the Population Association of America Stable URL : http://’, 51(4), pp. 1319–1344.

Mundakir (2021) ‘Political Dynamics Behind the Making of Shariah-Inspired Bylaws in Surakarta: The Case of Bylaw Number 3/2006 on the Eradication of Prostitution’, Journal of Indonesian Islam, 15(1), pp. 193–222. doi: 10.15642/JIIS.2021.15.1.193-222.

Nisa, E. F. (2011) ‘Marriage and divorce for the sake of religion: The marital life of Cadari in Indonesia 1’, Asian Journal of Social Science, 39(6), pp. 797–820. doi: 10.1163/156853111X619238.

Nugroho, B. D. et al. (2021) ‘Legal Protection for Marriages of Traditional Beliefs Adherents in Indonesia’, Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils, 8(5), pp. 10297–10308.

Nur, M. et al. (2022) ‘Interpretation of marriage in the Quran verses and implementation by wedding officiant’, International journal of health sciences, 6(S1), pp. 382–398. doi: 10.53730/ijhs.v6ns1.4778.

Nurmaini, T. (2018) Pelaksanaan Perkawinan di bawah Umur Berdasarkan UU No. 1 Tahun 1974 Tentang Perkawinan Ditinjau dari Perspektif Hukum Adat MinangKabau di Kecamatan Palupuh Kabupaten Agam.

Osborne, C. and Berger, L. M. (2012) ‘Family Structure Transitions and Changes in Maternal Resources and Well-being Author ( s ): Cynthia Osborne , Lawrence M . Berger and Katherine Magnuson Published by : Springer on behalf of the Population Association of America Stable URL : http://www.jst’, Demography, 49(1), pp. 23–47.

Parker, L. et al. (2018) ‘Marriage in Indonesia Young people ’ s attitudes towards inter- ethnic and inter-religious socializing , courtship and marriage in Indonesia’, 22(4), pp. 467–486.

Pongoliu, H. (2017) ‘Family of Sakinah, Mawaddah, Warahmah in the Concept of Islamic Marriage’, al Mizan Jurnal Pemikiran Hukum Islam, 13(1), pp. 1–16.

Roqib, M. (2010) ‘Pernikahan Dini dan Lambat: Merampas Hak-hak Anak’, Jurnal Studi Gender dan Anak Yin Yang, 5(2), pp. 296–311.

Sholeh, A. N., Saputra, N. and Manurung, A. H. (2021) ‘The Awareness of Islamic Law as a Spiritual Factor in Family Resilience and Parenting Quality During the Covid-19 Era’, Journal of Indonesian Islam, 15(2), pp. 329–358. doi: 10.15642/JIIS.2021.15.2.329-358.

Situmorang, J. et al. (2021) ‘Literation of land rights law in (Tola gumi) protection of indigenous peoples and its impact on community welfare’, Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 12(2), pp. 180–209.

Sulistyarini, R. et al. (2018) ‘The Contact Point of Customary Law and Islamic Law (Legal History Perspective)’, International Journal of Social Sciences and Management, 5(2), pp. 51–59. doi: 10.3126/ijssm.v5i2.19672.

Syifa, M. A. (2017) ‘Kajian Yuridis Terhadap Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi No . 22 / Puu-Xv / 2017 Tentang Batasan Usia Perkawinan dalam Perspektif Teori Maslahah Muhammad Sa ʻ îd Rama ḏ ân Al-B ȗṯ î dan Kesetaraan Gender dalam Islam’, Al-Inṣāf : Journal Program Studi Ahwal Al-Syakhshiyyah, 1(2), pp. 72–96.

Taufika, R. et al. (2021) ‘Overview of traditional law in the use of Mayam as mahar in Aceh traditional marriage’, Jurnal Civics: Media Kajian Kewarganegaraan, 18(2), pp. 296–303. doi: 10.21831/jc.v18i2.44945.

Thohir, M. (2019) ‘Etnografi Ideasional (Suatu Metodologi Penelitian Kebudayaan)’, Nusa: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa dan Sastra, 14(2), p. 194. doi: 10.14710/nusa.14.2.194-205.

Waston, W. and Suwartini, S. (2022) ‘Multicultural and multidisciplinary Islamic religious education and its significance for nurturing religious moderatism’, IjoReSH: Indonesian Journal of Religion, Spirituality, and Humanity, 1(1), pp. 76–98.

Yulianti, R. (2010) ‘Dampak yang ditimbulkan akibat perkawinan usia dini’, Jurnal Pamator: Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Trunojoyo, 3(1).

Yunus, H., Rusli, R. and Abidin, A. (2020) ‘The Concept of A Marriage Agreement in the Compilation of Islamic Law’, International Journal of Contemporary Islamic Law and Society, 2(2), pp. 33–45. doi: 10.24239/ijcils.vol2.iss2.20.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Ijtihad: Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam dan Kemanusiaan by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License