Hijrah and changing religious preferences in contemporary Islamic legal practice

Imam Mustofa, Muhammad Iqbal Juliansyahzen, Wildani Hefni


This research examines how urban Muslim communities in Purwokerto understand and practice religion in the area of muamalah (social relationships between people). Religious practice in urban Muslim communities is different from other religious communities. The intersection between the reality of modernity, Islamicity, and identity provides a model for distinguishing contemporary Muslim religious practices. This study is based on field research employing a phenomenological approach. Participatory observation was used to collect data from two mosques in Purwokerto City: the General Soedirman Grand Mosque and the Gelora Indah Mosque. Both mosques serve as the hub of religious discourse for Purwokerto's urban Muslim community, and they host a variety of religious studies on a regular basis. In-depth interviews were performed with worshippers from the two mosques by the researchers. Secondary data is derived from studies, journals, books, and other sources. This article concludes that urban Muslim identity is manifested in the shift away from usury practices and the choice of halal products. Studies in urban mosques and social media cannot isolate the rhetoric from the social formation of urban Muslims. In this environment, hijrah (shifting paradigm) has emerged as one of the trends that give rise to new nuances and views of any Islamic legal concept that is an annotated version of older works. Because of these shifts in preferences, the discipline of Islamic law, particularly fiqh muamalah, has become one of the most important areas for the expression of religious experience in the lives of urban Muslims


halal; hijrah; muamalah preferences; urban muslims; usury

Full Text:



Abd Rahman, A., Asrarhaghighi, E. and Ab Rahman, S. (2015) ‘Consumers and Halal cosmetic products: knowledge, religiosity, attitude and intention’, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 6(1), pp. 148–163. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-09-2013-0068.

Abdelhadi, E. (2019) ‘The Hijab and Muslim Women’s Employment in the United States’, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 61, pp. 26–37. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2019.01.006.

Abduh, M., Ramjaun, S.B. and Mustaqim, M. (2018) ‘Bank Selection Criteria and SERVQUAL Survey among Muslims in Mauritius’, QIJIS (Qudus International Journal of Islamic Studies), 6(2), p. 221. Available at: https://doi.org/10.21043/qijis.v6i2.3756.

Adib, M. (2012) ‘Agen dan Struktur dalam Pandangan Piere Bourdieu’, I(2), p. 20.

Afif. (2022) 'Personal Interview' in Purwokerto, 2 August.

Ali, H. and Purwandi, L. (2019) Wajah Muslim Indonesia. Jakarta: Islami[dot]co.

Amalia, F.A., Sosianika, A. and Suhartanto, D. (2020) ‘Indonesian Millennials’ Halal food purchasing: merely a habit?’, British Food Journal, 122(4), pp. 1185–1198. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-10-2019-0748.

Ambali, A.R. and Bakar, A.N. (2014) ‘People’s awareness on halal foods and products: Potential issues for policy-makers’, Procedia-Sosial and Behavioral Sciences [Preprint].

Ambari, H. and Dkk. (2005) Ensiklopedi Islam. Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve.

Aryanti, Y. (2017) ‘REFORMULASI FIQH MUAMALAH TERHADAP PENGEMBANGAN PRODUK PERBANKAN SYARIAH’, JURIS (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah), 16(2), pp. 149–157. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31958/juris.v16i2.968.

Ayuningtyas, D. et al. (2022) ‘Understanding the Current Trend of Hijrah: Between Self-Existance and Religious Understanding’, Risalah: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Studi Islam, 8(2).

Ayyub, R.M. (2015) ‘Exploring perceptions of non-Muslims towards Halal foods in UK’, British Food Journal, 117(9), pp. 2328–2343. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-07-2014-0257.

Baran, T. (2022) ‘COVID effect on retailing: a study on consumers’ retailer preferences during economic recession periods: evidence from Turkey as a predominantly Muslim society’, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 13(10), pp. 2193–2207. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-09-2020-0292.

Berger, P.L. (1991) Langit Suci: Agama Sebagai Realitas Sosial. Jakarta: LP3ES.

Billah, A., Rahman, M.A. and Hossain, M.T.B. (2020) ‘Factors influencing Muslim and non-Muslim consumers’ consumption behavior: A case study on halal food’, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 23(4), pp. 324–349. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2020.1768040.

Burchardt, M. and Westendorp, M. (2018) ‘The im-materiality of urban religion: towards an ethnography of urban religious aspirations’, Culture and Religion, 19(2), pp. 160–176. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/14755610.2018.1444656.

Cesur, R. and Mocan, N. (2018) ‘Education, Religion, and Voter Preference in a Muslim Country’, Journal of Population Economics, 31(1), pp. 1–44. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-017-0650-3.

Chong, S.C. et al. (2022) ‘Non-Muslim Malaysians’ purchase intention towards halal products’, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 13(8), pp. 1751–1762. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-10-2020-0326.

Desi. (2022) 'Personal Interview' in Purwokerto, 2 August.

Djunaidi, M. et al. (2021) ‘Perception and Consumer Behavior of Halal Product Toward Purchase Decision in Indonesia’, Jurnal Teknik Industri, 22(2), pp. 171–184. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22219/JTIUMM.Vol22.No2.171-184.

Dzulfikar, M.Z., Santosa, P.B. and Gunanto, E.Y.A. (2022) ‘Analysis of Millennial Muslims Preferences on the Crowdfunding Platform’, Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Sharia Economics (IIJSE), 5(1), pp. 24–47. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31538/iijse.v5i1.1796.

Fajriani, S.W. (2019) ‘HIJRAH ISLAMI MILENIAL BERDASARKAN PARADIGMA BERORIENTASI IDENTITAS’, Sosioglobal : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Sosiologi, 3(2), p. 76. Available at: https://doi.org/10.24198/jsg.v3i2.21643.

Fauzi, M.A. (2022) ‘Consumer Purchase of Halal Certified Product: a Quantitative Systematic Literature Review’, Journal of Islamic Marketing [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-09-2021-0299.

Fiki. (2022) 'Personal Interview' in Purwokerto, 2 August.

Flowerree, A.K. (2017) ‘Agency of belief and intention’, Synthese, 194(8), pp. 2763–2784.

Hamudy, N.A. and Hamudy, Moh.I.A. (2020) ‘Hijrah Movement in Indonesia: Shifting Concept and Implementation in Religiosity’, JSW (Jurnal Sosiologi Walisongo), 4(2), pp. 133–150. Available at: https://doi.org/10.21580/jsw.2020.4.2.5784.

Hariyanto, E. (2019) ‘The Settlement of Sharia Banking Dispute based on Legal Culture as a Practice of Indonesian Islamic Moderation’, AL-IHKAM: Jurnal Hukum & Pranata Sosial, 14(2), pp. 301–316.

Hashim, A.J. bt C.M. and Musa, R. (2014) ‘Factors Influencing Attitude towards Halal Cosmetic among Young Adult Urban Muslim Women: A Focus Group Analysis’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, pp. 129–134. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.016.

Hassim, N. (2014) ‘Hijab and the Malay-Muslim Woman in Media’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 155, pp. 428–433. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.317.

Hidayah, S.N. (2021) ‘Pesantren for Middle-Class Muslims in Indonesia (Between Religious Commodification and Pious Neoliberalism)’, QIJIS (Qudus International Journal of Islamic Studies), 9(1), p. 209. Available at: https://doi.org/10.21043/qijis.v9i1.7641.

Hidayat, R., Sholihin, M. and Wanto, D. (2020) ‘The Hijrah Communities and Religious Superficiality: Ideology and Religiosity of the Islamic Hijrah Communities on Social Media’, Journal of Population and Social Studies, 29, pp. 118–138. Available at: https://doi.org/10.25133/JPSSv292021.008.

Hirschkind, C. (2006) The Ethical Soundscape: Cassette Sermons and Islamic Counterpublics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hong, M. et al. (2020) ‘Chinese Muslim’s choice of halal products: evidence from stated preference data’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 25(4), pp. 696–717. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13547860.2019.1701827.

Hunt-Ahmed, K. (ed.) (2013) Contemporary Islamic finance: innovations, applications, and best practices [electronic resource]. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons (The Robert W. Kolb series in finance).

Ichwan, U.M.N. (2022) ‘Riba dan Dampaknya Bagian 3’, Info Kajian Purwokerto.

Iqbal, M., Nisha, N. and Rashid, M. (2018) ‘Bank selection criteria and satisfaction of retail customers of Islamic banks in Bangladesh’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 36(5), pp. 931–946. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-01-2017-0007.

Jafar, W.A. (2022) ‘Legality Of Halal Food Certification On Maslahah Mursalah Perspective’, JURNAL ILMIAH MIZANI: Wacana Hukum, Ekonomi, dan Keagamaan, 9(1), pp. 95–108. Available at: https://doi.org/10.29300/mzn.v9i1.7055.

Juliansyahzen, M.I. (2023) ‘Ideologization of Hijrah in Social Media: Digital Activism, Religious Commodification, and Conservative Domination’, Millah: Journal of Religious Studies, pp. 155–180. Available at: https://doi.org/10.20885/millah.vol22.iss1.art6.

Junaidi, J. (2021) ‘The awareness and attitude of Muslim consumer preference: the role of religiosity’, Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 12(6), pp. 919–938. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIABR-08-2020-0250.

Keane, W. (2007) Christian Moderns: Freedom and Fetish in the Mission Encounter. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Khan, M.S.N., Hassan, M.K. and Shahid, A.I. (2008) ‘Banking Behaviour of Islamic Bank Customers in Bangladesh’, Journal Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance, 3(2), pp. 159–194.

Khoiriyah, S.S., Paramita, M. and Pangestu, R.A. (2019) ‘MUSLIM COMMUNITIES PREFERENCE THAT DO NOT USE SHARIA PAWNSHOP’, Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business), 5(2), p. 181. Available at: https://doi.org/10.20473/jebis.v5i2.14780.

Khoiriyah, U. (2020) ‘PENGARUH POTENSI, PERSEPSI, DAN PREFERENSI TERHADAP SIKAP DALAM WAKAF UANG PADA MASYARAKAT MUSLIM KOTA SEMARANG’, AKSES: Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis, 13(2). Available at: https://doi.org/10.31942/akses.v13i2.3243.

Kirchmaier, I., Prüfer, J. and Trautmann, S.T. (2018) ‘Religion, moral attitudes and economic behavior’, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 148, pp. 282–300. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2018.02.022.

Krippendorff, K. (2004) Content Analysis; an Indtroduction to Its Methodology. London: Sage Publication.

Kurniawati, D.A. and Savitri, H. (2019) ‘Awareness level analysis of Indonesian consumers toward halal products’, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 11(2), pp. 522–546. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-10-2017-0104.

Lazuardi, M.N. and Santosa, P.B. (2020) ‘COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE THOUGHTS OF M. UMER CHAPRA AND M. ABDUL MANNAN ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF RIBA AND BANKING’, Ad-Deenar: Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam, 4(02), p. 139. Available at: https://doi.org/10.30868/ad.v4i02.715.

Lengauer, D. (2018) ‘Sharing Semangat Taqwa: Social Media and Digital Islamic Socialities in Bandung’, Indonesia and the Malay World, 46(134), pp. 5–23. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2018.1415276.

Lyansari, K.N. (2019) ‘Hijrah Celebrity Creating New Religiosities, Branding Economics of Lifestyle in the Age of Muslim Mass Consumption’, Analisis: Jurnal Studi Keislaman, 18(2), pp. 211–232. Available at: https://doi.org/10.24042/ajsk.v18i2.3066.

Manan, H.A. et al. (2019) ‘Factors Affecting Willingness To Accept Foreign Halal Foods By Urban Malaysian Malays’, Journal of Emerging Economies & Islamic Research, 7(1), pp. 45–54.

Manẓūr, A. al-F.J. al-D.M. bin M. bin (1968) Lisān al-‘Arab. Juz V. Beirut: Dār Ṣadir.

Morrow, J.A. (2014) Islamic Images and Ideas: Essays on Sacred Symbols. Jefferson. NC: McFarland &Company Inc., Publishers.

Musthofa, A. and Burhanudin (2021) ‘Konsumen Muslim: Pengetahuan Produk Halal dalam Keputusan Pembelian Makanan’, el-Jizya: Jurnal Ekonomi Islam, 9(1).

Mutmainah, L. (2018) ‘The Role of Religiosity, Halal Awareness, Halal Certification, and Food Ingredients on Purchase Intention of Halal Food’, Ihtifaz: Journal of Islamic Economics, Finance, and Banking, 1(1), pp. 33–50. Available at: https://doi.org/10.12928/ijiefb.v1i1.284.

Nafis, M.C. (2019) ‘The Concept of Halal and Thayyib And Its Implementation in Indonesia’, Journal of Halal Product and Research, 2(1).

Nofianti, K.A. and Rofiqoh, S.N.I.R. (2019) ‘Kesadaran dan Logo Halal: Apakah Menentukan Minat Beli? (Studi pada Praktisi Bisnis UMKM di Gresik)’, Journal of Halal Product and Research, 2(1).

Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (2009) Hand Book of Qualitative Research. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Norvadewi et al. (2021) ‘The Effect of Prices, Halal Certification, and Halal Awareness on Buying Interest Among Muslims in Samarinda’, in. Annual International Conference on Islamic Economics and Business, Salatiga, pp. 116–126.

Novitasari, D. et al. (2021) ‘The Role of Halal Awareness on Purchase Intention of Halal Food: Evidence from Indonesian Working Students’, International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS), pp. 31–44. Available at: https://doi.org/10.51386/25815946/ijsms-v4i1p104.

Nurani, L. and Adinugraha, H.H. (2022) ‘Consumer Preferences in the Selection of Muslim Fashion Products in Indonesia’, Journal of Islamic Economic and Business Research, 2(2), pp. 104–113. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18196/jiebr.v2i2.26.

Prihatini, M. and Muhid, A. (2021) ‘Literasi Digital terhadap Perilaku Penggunaan Internet Berkonten Islam di Kalangan Remaja Muslim Kota’, Journal An-Nafs: Kajian Penelitian Psikologi, 6(1), pp. 23–40. Available at: https://doi.org/10.33367/psi.v6i1.1307.

Qomaruzzaman, B. and Busro, B. (2021) ‘Doing Hijrah Through Music: A Religious Phenomenon Among Indonesian Musician Community’, Studia Islamika, 28(2). Available at: https://doi.org/10.36712/sdi.v28i2.13277.

Qotadah, H.A. et al. (2022) ‘Cultured Meat for Indonesian Muslim Communities: A Review of Maslahah and Prospect’, Al-Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Islam, 7(2 November), pp. 329–346. Available at: https://doi.org/10.29240/jhi.v7i2.5476.

Rachbini, W. (2018) ‘The Relationship of Attitude, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control on Halal Food Purchasing Behavior in Jakarta’, Journal of Business and Management, 20(1), pp. 28–37.

Ram, M. and Aharon Gutman, M. (2017) ‘Strongholding the Synagogue to Stronghold the City: Urban-Religious Configurations in an Israeli Mixed-City: Strongholding the Synagogue to Stronghold the City’, Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 108(5), pp. 641–655. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/tesg.12231.

Renie, E. (2021) ‘The Urgency of Fatwa in The Law of Sharia Economics in Indonesia’, JURIS (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah), 20(2), pp. 201–208. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31958/juris.v20i2.4059.

Rijal, S. (2020) ‘Following Arab Saints: Urban Muslim youth and traditional piety in Indonesia’, Indonesia and the Malay World, 48(141), pp. 145–168. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2020.1729540.

Riskia, M. (2022) ‘Implementation Of Mudharabah Financing On Baitul Maal According Majlis Ulama Indonesia’, Journal of Nusantara Economy, 1(1), pp. 1–13.

Samad, T.F.D. et al. (2022) ‘HALAL CUISINE IN MUSLIM-MINORITY URBAN PREFERENCE: CASE STUDY IN MANADO’, Akademika : Jurnal Pemikiran Islam, 27(2), p. 245. Available at: https://doi.org/10.32332/akademika.v27i2.5746.

Santoso, L. and Lestari, T.W.S. (2017) ‘Konparasi Syarat Keabsahan “Sebab Yang Halal” Dalam Perjanjian Konvensional Dan Perjanjian Syariah’, Al-Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Islam, 2(1 June), pp. 1–16. Available at: https://doi.org/10.29240/jhi.v2i1.152.

Shahid, S., Ahmed, F. and Hasan, U. (2018) ‘A qualitative investigation into consumption of halal cosmetic products: the evidence from India’, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 9(3), pp. 484–503. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-01-2017-0009.

Sunaryanto, S., Rizal, S. and Zulkifli, Z. (2022) ‘Religious Bourgeois Lifestyle of Celebrity Hijrah: Reading the Resurrection of the Muslim Middle Class Based on Cultural Imperalism and Global Economic Factors’, MUHARRIK: Jurnal Dakwah dan Sosial, 5(1), pp. 63–87. Available at: https://doi.org/10.37680/muharrik.v5i1.1209.

Sunesti, Y., Hasan, N. and Azca, M.N. (2018) ‘Young Salafi-Niqabi and Hijrah: Agency and Identity Negotiation’, Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, 8(2), pp. 173–198. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v8i2.173-198.

Sunesti, Y. and Putri, A.K. (2022) ‘Sharia housing and millennials in Indonesia: Between religious and Economic Motives’, HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 78(4). Available at: https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v78i4.7062.

Surur, A.T. (ed.) (2022) Perkembangan Industri Halal di Indonesia. Pekalongan: Scientis Publishing.

Susetyo, H. et al. (2019) ‘Regulating Halal Products in Indonesia: Between Religious Needs and Socio-Economic Challenges’, Mazahib, pp. 1–43. Available at: https://doi.org/10.21093/mj.v18i1.1372.

Sutono (2017) ‘Understanding of the Halalan Tayyiban Concept Towards Purchase Intention of Halal Cosmetics among Young Urban Muslim Consumers’, in. Putajaya: Perpustakaan Sultan Abdul Samad, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Tektona, R.I., Susanti, D.O. and Septianto, D.H. (2020) ‘The Act Protection for Islamic Banks in Financing Land and Rubber Plantation Ownership’, Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam, 4(1), pp. 209–231. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22373/sjhk.v4i1.6880.

Ullah, K.Z. (2014) ‘An investigation of the Selection criteria of Islamic Banking in Pakistan: Customers’ Perspective’, Research Journal of Management Science, 3(6), pp. 7–9.

Waluyo, A. (2020) ‘The developmental policy of halal product guarantee in the paradigm of maqāṣid sharī`ah in Indonesia’, Ijtihad : Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam dan Kemanusiaan, 20(1), pp. 41–60. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v20i1.41-60.

de Wildt, K. et al. (2019) ‘Transformations of “Sacredness in Stone”: Religious Architecture in Urban Space in 21st Century Germany—New Perspectives in the Study of Religious Architecture’, Religions, 10(11), p. 602. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10110602.

Yasid, Farhan, F. and Andriansyah, Y. (2016) ‘Factors Affecting Muslim Students Awareness of Halal Products in Yogyakarta, Indonesia’, International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(4).

Yuliani, I. and Alif, f K. (2022) ‘Does Hijrah Trends Create a Different Decision on Behavior Consumption of Indonesian Muslims?’, Bulletin of Islamic Economics, 1(1), pp. 9–23.

Zainal, A. and Samsulhadi, M. (2022) ‘Islamic Centre Mu’adz Bin Jabal (ICM) sebagai Preferensi Keagamaan Masyarakat Urban’, PUSAKA, 10(1), pp. 20–38. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31969/pusaka.v10i1.662.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v23i1.115-138


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Ijtihad: Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam dan Kemanusiaan by http://ijtihad.iainsalatiga.ac.id/ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License